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The corn in the Masonic rituals is a synonym of grain or wheat. 
In ancient rituals was used as an emblem of the Greek goddess Demeter, or of the  Roman Cybelis. 
Both female figures were conceived as appearances of the Mother Earth. 
In Greek pottery someone can see that in festivities in honour of Demeter the priests and the faithful were crowned with ears of wheat.
This symbolized the fertility of the earth, which with the grain gives the bread to the mankind. 
Thus was corn or grain according to this symbolism the personification of the idea of plenty, abundance, and due to the divine intervention promised fertility. 

Following the same religious beliefs was wine the symbol of Greek God Dionysos.  
By drinking the wine the Dionysiac priests and initiated participants to the Bacchical mysteries were able to come to the psychic condition of "methexis" - a condition  of holy madness -, so they could play the drama of ritual death and rebirth of Dionysos. 
The wine helped them to loose their identity and come as divine actors to a psychological situation, under which they understood hidden truths and the divine allegory by using their feelings and insights rather than their intellect. 
The wine was seen as a symbol of joy, exaltation ,and as a mean towards the  initiation through the emotion  and the instinct, by acting in Bacchical rituals, after having  eliminated the logic.

The  oil was, as an extract of the olive fruit,  a reward of the Greek  goddess of knowledge Athena - Pallas, who had as emblem, among others, the  olive-tree.
One of  the principal uses of oil was to bring the light in homes, so it was seen in its more esoterical significance as a symbol of spiritual Enlightenment, in other words as a symbol of the eternal lantern of divine knowledge. 
In the same meaning was the oil a symbol of peace through Enlightenment. 
Plants of the olive tree were given as a reward to the winners of the Olympic games, during which every war must be breached.
Thus Athena brought to the faithful with the present of oil the reward of hidden knowledge, enlightenment and peace.

In the Biblical symbolism the three products possessed a similar meaning and significance to this of the Greco-roman world. 
King Solomon gave corn, wine and oil to the builders of the Temple as a reward for their labors.
The ear of corn together with the flood of water personifies in the Hebrew word Shibboleth the abundance and
The wine was seen as an element of consecration and a divine refreshment. 
The Hebrews anointed their Kings, Prophets and High Priests with oil mixed with other spices, because the oil was the major element of the ceremony, which was leading towards the path of the divine initiation.

In the Christian symbolism the corn refers to the bread and this last one makes someone remember of the body of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist, as well as the wine refers to the blood of him. 
The oil symbolizes the Baptism.
The three substances are the most significant of the Christian initiation. 
In Christian Masonic degrees these three rewards of the Mason bring with them the remembrance of the Holy Passion and the promise of the Resurrection.

According to all above mentioned symbolical languages the Mason receives as a reward for his labors in the Lodge the present of grain, because he fertilized himself and all other Masons by working in the building of himself and the building of the Temple. 
He receives the  wine to remember that through his emotion and instinct conquered the hidden knowledge by playing in the rituals the passions of God his symbolical murder and his eternal rebirth. 
Thirdly he receives the oil to remember  that he achieved at the end of the road the spiritual enlightenment, the baptism, and his inner peace as a reflection of the eternal peace of God.